Revision on Reproduction

1. Fig. 1.1 shows some of the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus being withdrawn using a syringe.
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Fig. 1.1
(a) Name structures A to D.
A ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
B ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
C ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
D ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….[3]
(b) Describe one function of the amniotic fluid.
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(c) (i) State two substances which are carried by the blood in the umbilical cord, in the
direction of the arrow.
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
(ii) Name the type of blood vessel in which these substances are carried.
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As a result of the microscopic examination of cells present in the amniotic fluid, it is possible
to tell both the sex of the fetus, and also whether the fetus suffers from Down’s syndrome.
(d) Explain how an examination of the cells could indicate
(i) that the fetus is female;
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(ii) that the fetus has Down’s syndrome.
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[3]
[Total: 10]

2. Fig. 2.1 summarises the early stages of sexual reproduction in an animal.
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Fig. 2.1
(a) (i) Name the type of cells shown at R. ………………………………………………………………..
(ii) Name the process occurring at S. ………………………………………………………………………
(iii) Name the type of cell shown at T. ……………………………………………………………………..
[3]
(b) Suggest what happens after stage W in Fig. 5.1 when two genetically identical offspring
are produced.
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(c) Explain how twins could be
(i) both girls;
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(ii) one of each sex.
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[4]
[Total: 8]
3. (a) Describe the functions of the testes.
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(b) Describe the part played by the uterus in the development of an embryo from the time of ovulation to the birth of the baby.
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[Total: 10]

4. (a) Compare human male and female gametes in terms of (i) size, (ii) numbers and (iii) movement. In each case, suggest reasons for the differences you describe.
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(b) Explain (i) what is meant by a natural method of birth control and (ii) why it is the
least reliable method of birth control.
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[Total: 10]
5. (a) Compare the male and female gametes of a plant in terms of (i) numbers and (ii) movement. In each case, suggest reasons for the differences you describe. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………….
[7]
(b) Explain the advantages of asexual reproduction.
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[Total: 10]
6. (a) Outline the process of reproduction in a human female from the moment of fertilisation to the time at which the placenta is formed.
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(b) (i) State and explain the special dietary needs of a pregnant woman.
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(ii) Describe the advantages of breast milk over bottled milk.
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[Total: 10]
7. Fig. 7.1 shows the development of a zygote into a fetus.
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Fig. 7.1
(a) State whereabouts in the female reproductive system structure C would be found.
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(b) Name the type of cell division occurring in Fig. 7.1.
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(c) Describe what happens to structure D to enable it to continue to develop into a fetus.
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(d) If the embryo’s mother had blood group A and its father had blood group B, complete the grid below to show how the embryo could have blood group O. Use IA, IB and Io to represent the alleles and clearly indicate any embryo that has blood group O.
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[4]
[Total: 8]

8. Fig. 8.1 shows changes in the uterus during the menstrual cycle.
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Fig. 8.1
(a) Identify R. ………………………………………………………………………..
[1]
(b) State the days when each of the following processes are most likely to occur during the cycle.
(i) fertilisation ………………………………………………………………………….
(ii) implantation ……………………………………………………………………….
[2]
(c) Suggest and explain why blood must not pass directly from the mother to the fetus
during pregnancy, even though it contains substances necessary for fetal development.
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Table 8.1 shows that temperature determines whether the eggs of a particular species of
reptile hatch into a male or a female.
Table 8.1
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(d) (i) State the ranges of temperatures at which females are more likely than males to
hatch from the eggs.
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(ii) State three ways in which the production of a male human child differs from the
production of the male form of this reptile.
1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. [3]
[Total: 11]
9. State where male hormones and female hormones are produced in mammals and
describe their roles in reproduction.
male hormones ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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female hormones …………………………………………………………………………………………………….
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[Total: 7]

10. (a) Describe the part played by an ovule in the reproduction of a plant.
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(b) State the products of an ovary in a woman and describe the roles of each of these
products.
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[Total: 10]

11. (a) List the main parts of the human female reproductive system and describe the function of each part listed.
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(b) (i) Describe the signs and symptoms of a named sexually-transmitted disease.
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(ii) How can the spread of this disease be controlled?
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[4]

12. Compare the ways in which a plant embryo and a human embryo obtain the raw materials for nutrition and respiration.
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[5]
13. Describe the process of fertilisation in
(i) a mammal;
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(ii) a flowering plant.
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[8]
(b) Explain why a plant species in which self-pollination usually occurs can become adapted to new surroundings better than one that reproduces asexually, but less well than a species that is always cross-pollinated.
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[4]
[Total: 12]

4 thoughts on “Revision on Reproduction

  1. my bio teacher changed recently i m frm ga atoll school . and i m in gr 10 bio is v hard now . i dont understand reproduction chapter inheritence and ciculatory system can u please help me ?

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