CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Man by his intelligence uses every possible way to alter the balance of the nature to satisfy his selfish motives. There are about 10 million different species of organisms in the biosphere. At present, because of human activities, the world may be losing up three species a day, and the rate is increasing, so inevitably some species are being lost before we even know they exist. Then they become extinct for ever; because it is not simply death –it is an end to birth. So it is a must to conserve the species.

Conservation can be described as an attempt by man to develop a way of life that does not disturb the balance of nature, and yet allows him to maintain all the advantages of modern civilization.

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EXCRETION

Excretion is the removal of toxic materials and waste products of metabolism from the living organisms.

Excretion in plants

1. Respiration produces CO2 as a waste product.

2. Photosynthesis produces O2 as a by-product. Both gases are released through the stomata by diffusion.

3. Some deciduous plants excrete chemicals which may be left in the leaves in autumn. When the leaves fall, these substances are lost from the plants.

4.  Water is produced during respiration and also removed during transpiration.

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BIOTECHNOLOGY

BIOREACTORS

Biotechnology is the method of using biological process, organisms and systems in manufacturing and service industries. 

Examples:

  •  Cheese production
  •  Yoghurt production
  •   Bread making
  • Antibiotic production
  • alcohol production
  • Single cell protein production 
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SEED STRUCTURE AND GERMINATION

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STRUCTURE OF A DICOT SEED

 EXAMPLE FRENCH BEAN

The seed contains a small plant, the embryo which consists of a young root or radicle and a young shoot or plumule. The embryo is attached to two leaves called the cotyledons, which are swollen with stored food. This stored food mainly consists of starch, which is used by the embryo for growth. The embryo and the cotyledons are enclosed in a tough seed coat or testa. The micropyle, the hole through which the pollen tube entered the ovule, remains as a hole in the testa and is an important route for the entry of water during germination. The hilum is the scar left where the seed was attached to the pod.

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PARASITISM

The relationship between two organisms in which one organism is benefited and the other one is harmed is called parasitism.

 Anopheles_

Malarial parasite

Parasites are organisms that live in or on the body of another organism from which it obtains food and cause harm to the host.eg. Mosquitoes, round worm, tape worm,

Host:- the organism in which the parasite lives in and obtain its food.

Ectoparasite – The parasite which lives outside body of the host. E.g. Mosquitoes.

Endoparasite – The parasite which lives inside the body of the host.

Vector – Many endo parasites do not have locomot0ry organs to move from one host to another. They employ some medium to carry them from one host to another. These mediums are called vectors.

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